Matthew 5:31-32. It hath been said, Whosoever shall put away his wife, let
him give her a writing of divorcement: But I say unto to you, That
whosoever shall put away his wife, saving for the cause of fornication,
causeth her to commit adultery: and whosoever shall marry her that is
divorced committeth adultery.
This time our King quotes and condemns a permissive enactment of the
Jewish state. Men were wont to bid their wives "begone," and a hasty
word was thought sufficient as an act of divorce. Moses insisted upon
"a writing of divorcement," that angry passions might have time to cool
and that the separation, if it must come, might be performed with
deliberation and legal formality. The requirement of a writing was to a
certain degree a check upon an evil habit, which was so engrained in
the people that to refuse it altogether would have been useless, and
would only have created another crime. The law of Moses went as far as
it could practically be enforced; it was because of the hardness of
their hearts that divorce was tolerated; it was never approved. But our
Lord is more heroic in his legislation. He forbids divorce except for
the one crime of infidelity to the marriage-vow. She who commits
adultery does by that act and deed in effect sunder the marriage-bond,
and it ought then to be formally recognized by the State as being
sundered; but for nothing else should a man be divorced from his wife.
Marriage is for life, and cannot be loosed, except by the one great
crime which severs its bond, whichever of the two is guilty of it. Our
Lord would never have tolerated the wicked laws of certain of the
American States, which allow married men and women to separate on the
merest pretext. A woman divorced for any cause but adultery, and
marrying again, is committing adultery before God, whatever the laws of
man may call it. This is very plain and positive; and thus a sanctity
is given to marriage which human legislation ought not to violate. Let
us not be among those who take up novel ideas of wedlock, and seek to
deform the marriage laws under the pretense of reforming them. Our Lord
knows better than our modern social reformers. We had better let the
laws of God alone, for we shall never discover any better.
Matthew 5:33-37. Again, ye have heard that it hath been said by them of old
time, Thou shalt not forswear thyself, but shalt perform unto the Lord
thine oaths: but I say unto you, Swear not at all; neither of heaven;
for it is God's throne: nor by the earth; for it is his footstool:
neither by Jerusalem; for it is the city of the great King. Neither
shalt thou swear by thy head, because thou canst not make one hair
white or black. But let your communication be, Yea, yea; Nay, nay: for
whatsoever is more than these cometh of evil.
False swearing was forbidden of old, but every kind of swearing is
forbidden now by the word of our Lord Jesus. He mentions several forms
of oath, and forbids them all, and then prescribes simple forms of
affirmation or denial, as all that his followers should employ.
Notwithstanding much that may be advanced to the contrary, there is no
evading the plain sense of this passage, that every sort of oath,
however solemn or true, is forbidden to a follower of Jesus. Whether in
court of law, or out of it the rule is, "Swear not at all." Yet, in
this Christian country we have swearing everywhere, and especially
among law-makers. Our legislators begin their official existence by
swearing. By those who obey the law of the Saviour's kingdom, all
swearing is set aside, that the simple word of affirmation or denial,
calmly repeated, may remain as a sufficient bond of truth. A bad man
cannot be believed on his oath, and a good man speaks the truth without
an oath; to what purpose is the superfluous custom of legal swearing
preserved? Christians should not yield to an evil custom, however great
the pressure put upon them; but they should abide by the plain and
unmistakable command of their Lord and King.
Matthew 5:38. Ye have heard that it hath been said, An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth:
The law of an eye for an eye, as administered in the proper courts of
law was founded in justice, and worked far more equitably than the more
modern system of fines; for that method allows rich men to offend with
comparative impunity, but when the lex talionis came to be the rule of
daily life, it fostered revenge, and our Saviour would not tolerate it
as a principle carried out by individuals. Good law in court may be
very bad custom in common society. He spoke against what had become a
proverb and was heard and said among the people, "Ye have heard that it
hath been said." Our loving King would have private dealings ruled by
the spirit of love and not by the rule of law.
Matthew 5:39. But I say unto you, That ye resist not evil: but whosoever
shall smite thee on thy right cheek, turn to him the other also.
Non-resistance and forbearance are to be the rule among Christians.
They are to endure personal ill-usage without coming to blows. They are
to be as the anvil when bad men are the hammers, and thus they are to
overcome by patient forgiveness. The rule of the judgment seat is not
for common life; but the rule of the cross and the all-enduring
Sufferer is for us all. Yet how many regard all this as fanatical,
utopian, and even cowardly! The Lord, our King, would have us bear and
forbear, and conquer by mighty patience. Can we do it? How are we the
servants of Christ if we have not his spirit?
Matthew 5:40. And if any man will sue thee at the law, and take away thy coat, let him have thy cloke also.
Let him have all he asks, and more. Better lose a suit of cloth than be
drawn into a suit in law. The courts of our Lord's day were vicious,
and his disciples were advised to suffer wrong sooner than appeal to
them. Our own courts often furnish the surest method of solving a
difficulty by authority, and we have known them resorted to with the
view of preventing strife. Yet even in a country where justice can be
had, We are not to resort to law for every personal wrong. We should
rather endure to be put upon than be for ever crying out, "I'll bring
an action." At times this very rule of self-sacrifice may require us to
take steps in the way of legal appeal, to stop injuries which would
fall heavily upon others; but we ought often to forego our own
advantage, yea, always when the main motive would be a proud desire for
self-vindication. Lord, give me a patient spirit, so that I may not
seek to avenge myself, even when I might righteously do so!
Matthew 5:41. And whosoever shall compel thee to go a mile, go with him twain.
Governments in those days demanded forced service through their petty
officers. Christians were to be of a yielding temper, and bear a double
exaction rather than provoke ill words and anger. We ought not to evade
taxation, but stand ready to render to Caesar his due. "Yield" is our
watchword. To stand up against force is not exactly our part; we may
leave that to others. How few believe the long-suffering, non-resistant
doctrines of our King!
Matthew 5:42. Give to him that asketh thee, and from him that would borrow of thee turn not thou away.
Be generous. A miser is no follower of Jesus. Discretion is to be used
in our giving, lest we encourage idleness and beggary; but the general
rule is, "Give to him that asketh thee." Sometimes a loan may be more
useful than a gift, do not refuse it to those who will make right use
of it. These precepts are not meant for fools, they are set before us
as our general rule; but each rule is balanced by other Scriptural
commands, and there is the teaching of a philanthropic common-sense to
guide us. Our spirit is to be one of readiness to help the needy by
gift or loan, and we are not exceedingly likely to err by excess in
this direction; hence the boldness of the command.